Oils and Microbiota
One of the main feature of chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, such as the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), is the overproduction of oxidant species, nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, secreted by enterocytes and local immune cells, which sustain and amplify inflammation and cause extensive damage to the mucosa. Growing evidence is accumulating toward the strong influence of dietary components, whose metabolites exert pro-oxidant or pro-inflammatory features, in the onset and progression of gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders. In this connection, dietary oxidized lipids, such as oxysterols and fatty acids hydroperoxides, together with microbiota, may influence intestinal inflammation through different mechanisms which include direct production of reactive species in the colon, antigenic effect, alteration of gene expression, changes in the composition of the enteric flora, gut permeability, and immune system deregulation. Recently, debate has erupted in both the scientific community and throughout the lay public around whether a low-fat or low carbohydrate diet is better for weight loss. Is it better to cut fat or cut carbohydrate for weight loss. However, going beyond this debate (fat versus carbohydrate), are questions around whether certain fatty acids are worse for promoting insulin resistance, inflammation, and obesity.
Why olive oil and fish oils?
- The anti-inflammatory activity of olive oil polyphenols seems to be related to their ability to inhibit the proinflammatory activity of oxidants-generating enzymes and to modulate different intracellular signaling pathways.
- Fish oils have clinically proven effects for cancer prevention and treatment in numerous cancers, including colon, pancreatic, breast and lung cancer. Fish oils can alter HLA-DR gene expression and are highly anti inflammatory. It has been shown that combining fish oils with anti-oxidant vitamin E may inhibit oxidation and increase their effects, especially in reducing insulin resistance. This affect was noted across many groups and among both male and female patients, including menopausal, overweight, atherosclerotic and in those suffering with chronic conditions such as Parkinson’s and PCOS. Interestingly, testosterone and free testosterone was markedly reduced in women with PCOS.
Flax oil Omega 3’s did not produce the same effects in PCOS women.
Despite the myriads of studies outlining the benefits of Omega 3’s supplementation, studies on children are not well known. Studies have shown that even without dietary intervention, supplementation with salmon oil omega 3’s significantly reduces obesity and insulin resistance in obese children.
Vitamin E Vitamin E is a group of eight fat soluble compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Vitamin E deficiency is usually due to an underlying problem with digesting dietary fat rather than from a diet low in vitamin E, and this can cause nerve problems.
Though poorly understood, vitamin E may have various roles. Many biological functions have been postulated, including a role as a fat-soluble antioxidant. In this role, vitamin E acts as a radical scavenger, delivering a hydrogen (H) atom to free radicals. Vitamin E donates a hydrogen atom to the peroxyl radical and other free radicals, minimizing their damaging effect. The thus-generated tocopheryl radical is recycled to tocopherol by a redox reaction with a hydrogen donor. As it is fat-soluble, vitamin E is incorporated into cell membranes, which are therefore protected from oxidative damage.
Most Americans are extremely deficient in vitamin E.
Natural vitamin E is known as “d-alpha-tocopherol.” This is the most biologically active form of vitamin E.
Synthetic vitamin E is known as “dl-alpha-tocopherol.” According to the NIH Oﬃce of Dietary Supplements, you need “approximately 50% more IU of synthetic alpha tocopherol” to get the same nutritional effect. They are derived from petroleum products.
Fish like Salmon, Trout and other fatty ﬁsh contain small amounts of natural Vitamin E. The best sources of vitamin E are found in nuts and seeds. Wheat germ oil contains the highest amounts of Vitamin E with over 100% RDA per tablespoon. Most vegetables and fruits are not high in Vitamin E and many servings are required to get a substantial daily amount. Do not over consume any beneﬁcial oil to prevent risk of bleeding and stroke and other potential negative side effects. One tsp. – one tbsp. per day is suﬃcient for any healthy oil used as treatment. Do not exceed RDA of any vitamin and always be sure to look for only bio active natural sources. Do not forget children and pets have different RDA levels for safe consumption. The majority of synthetic vitamins are not bio equivalent!
Caution for dogs.
*Dogs can not synthesize plant based flax seed oil Omega 3’s.
Anti-inflammatory oils like fish oils and olive oil have known beneficial effects which has been documented across thousands of studies. Many of these previous studies have failed to account for other dietary factors such as complex fatty acid combinations, the fats included in animal diets such as soy which have direct impact on the final animal product and oxidation that can quickly occur in some oils like fish oils. In addition it is being shown that while plant and fish oil based Omega 3’s were previously thought to be equal, current studies are showing they are not producing equal effects on defined parameters. Studies on these combined effects are producing clarity on the known benefits of healthy oils and why some plant based Omega 3 oils may not produce the same benefits as other Omega 3’s.
date nut muffins
Date Nut Muffins are a classic British teatime treat made with sweet dates and toasted walnuts.
Date nut muffins are a handy variation on date nut bread, which originated in Great Britain (specifically Scotland) as a tea time treat. This recipe uses a small amount of brown sugar.