Antibiotic use is detrimental for long term outcomes Exposure to antibiotics early in life, maternally or via the food chain, can have a large effect on gut microbiota, disturbing its composition and functionality, which in turn can disrupt gut barrier function and lead to influx bacterial fragments into blood. As a result, low-grade chronic inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia are produced, affecting host metabolism and insulin resistance. This microbiota alteration in early life has long-lasting effects on bodyweight in adulthood; epidemiological studies have shown that early exposure to antibiotics is associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders later in life. Those microbiota bacteria are important for body homeostasis, by participating in the digestive process, energy regulation, SCFA production, vitamin synthesis, protection against pathogenic microorganisms, and modulation of the immunologic system.
Diarrheal resultant conditions may include endotoxemia and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Endotoxemia is a critical component in the development of hemolytic uremic syndrome. Since this condition is caused by the ingestion of E. coli strains that express both a toxin (Shiga-like toxin 2) and LPS, oral administration of colostrum will treat and ameliorate the disease.
Bovine colostrum ameliorates diarrhea in infection with diarrheogenic E. coli, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and E. coli expressing intimin and hemolysin, it supports wound healing and also the regeneration of damaged intestinal mucosa.
Bovine colostrum increases colonization of probiotics 52 fold including bifido.
- Adhesion of pathogens reduced
- Bovine colostrum results in increased phagocytosis and reduced bacterial and viral load in 24 hours independent of immune factors
- Antibodies against endotoxins are also contained in the natural spectrum of antibodies from bovine colostrum.
probiotics & prebiotics
Probiotics in combination with pre-biotics have become an important means of preventing and treating disease. Several types of diarrhea have been successfully treated with probiotics.
Research to fully realize this potential must focus on the following areas:
• the identification of strains of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus that can withstand passage through the gastrointestinal tract
• the identification of probiotic species and strains that are effective against specific disease processes or for the prevention of disease • the investigation of mechanisms of probiotic action
• the identification of additional compounds that will enhance the growth of probiotic organisms (eg, the development of more effective and safer pre-biotics and selection or development of strains that will adhere to the intestinal mucosal cells.
Some related, though non-diarrheal, situations involving the effects of probiotics on bacterial overgrowth.
In patients with chronic kidney failure, there is often a bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine, resulting in toxins. These toxic compounds were signiﬁcantly lower in patients treated with 2 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, resulting in a signiﬁcantly better quality of life. Of public health importance, Campylobacter jejuni shedding in broiler chicks was all but eliminated by the administration of L. acidophilus. C. jejuni is often the cause of food poisoning in humans.
Lactulose has been used clinically to provide symptomatic relief in severe liver disease. Speciﬁcally, it lowers blood ammonia concentrations and prevents the development of hepatic encephalopathy. Because biﬁdobacteria and other colonic organisms metabolize lactulose, colonic contents become acidic, converting NH3 to NH4+, which serves to draw the NH3 from the blood to the colon. NH4+ is then excreted in the feces. Subjects receiving fructooligosaccharides or inulin per day had higher hydrogen and methane outputs in their breath than did subjects fed sucrose. Fecal shortchain fatty acid concentrations (eg, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids) did not change signiﬁcantly. Rafﬁnose ingestion, a naturally occurring sugar consisting of one molecule each of glucose, galactose, and fructose, resulted in a decrease in fecal pH, an increase in the short-chain fatty acid content, and an increase in Lactobacillus ssp. counts.
date nut muffins
Date Nut Muffins are a classic British teatime treat made with sweet dates and toasted walnuts.
Date nut muffins are a handy variation on date nut bread, which originated in Great Britain (specifically Scotland) as a tea time treat. This recipe uses a small amount of brown sugar.