It’s been a great series on hyaluronic acid one of the GAG building blocks that make up your entire structure. I hope everyone finds value in this series especially for IBD. I would’ve certainly taken it for that had I known about it. Leaky gut is not the cause of IBD but it does play a role, similar to interstitial cystitis as written about below where mucosal barrier protection is crucial. IVD is invertebral disc in Intervertebral Disc Injury as seen below, not in vitro. The cytopathic effect is change in the cell structure due to lysis or breakdown. I was trying to explain this can be a  natural process but still have ill effects or become dys-regulated with regard to hyaluronic acid and tissue healing and in some instances a co-factor may be required. With regard to GAG’s for collagen production it is often Vitamin C (sodium ascorbate).


Malnutrition and toxicity syndromes.

It is so helpful to learn to distinguish between the effects of late life malnutrition (happens in elderly) and SAM (developmental malnutrition) and other forms of malnutrition from diet extremes or caused by toxicity. The hierarchy of values for chronic conditions as shown in critical info at the bottom of each page is extremely helpful here especially when it comes to the current hot topic of hair loss. While I would not be surprised if generational malnutrition syndromes known as SAM were not showing up I still doubt malnutrition is cause. I also doubt stress is a cause as opined on in The Breakfast Club and I state why. It is very important to understand that this hierarchy of risk has had to to account for dozens upon dozens of factors over the last century and a half to reach this hierarchy of values. A huge analysis of data and research. Not an easy thing to do when presented with many modern factors but regardless it has been done and it aligns perfectly with history and modern statistical analysis therefore it is helpful when examining your own health issues especially if chronic. 

Red herring season. Effluvium in the air.

If you see it on your shampoo IT MUST BE TRUE.

Telogen Effluvium. The Standard American Explanation, bald faced lies. If it’s trending, don’t follow the breadcrumbs.

As far as external culprits, hinting at sulfates instead of the number one issue on Dr. Berg’s list; loss of hemoglobin as caused by graphene oxide, not by lack of iron making this entire topic filled with one red herring after another. I suppose I will have to add both videos here for reference as they will not stay in The Breakfast Club. You can suspect any and many environmental culprits, pre Covid that culprit would likely be assumed to be chemotherapy by the majority of hair loss watchers but post Covid, no, it’s either stress or malnutrition instead of a new environmental chemical intoxicant. Hinted at by Dr. Berg (whole house water filtration, fluoride toxicity is NOT new) that there might be something in the water. That isn’t new either because in the industrial age there is always something in the water that you probably don’t want and some corporate or commercial interest will be determined to hide to avoid liability.

Watch the water…. for sharks, red herrings and graphene oxide causing astonishingly sudden loss of hemoglobin and therefore possibly hair loss. There could be no sudden development of a loss of iron in the mass population unless they are bleeding to death.

If you see it on your shampoo IT MUST BE TRUE.

Edward Bernays (Mad Men)

Speaking of red herrings, from the Vitamin D in your milk and cereal, to the bacon and eggs on your breakfast table to the iodine in your salt it wasn’t and isn’t there for initial said claims on radio, tv or on the box, not then, not now. Now hum a jingle because I’m sure you have at least a few that are ingrained into your psyche.

The inability to synthesize D that he mentions would only lead to toxic levels in that amount in those who can’t synthesize. Requires sulfate and oleic acid for accelerated clearance to avoid  toxicity and auto inflammatory effects. Cod liver oil or sunshine only please.

Audio Only Addition 

Mostly about the different types of ‘gas lighting’, how culture today is being influenced and how this can create mental trauma that you have to avoid as much as you can for your own well being. The crossroad of instability occurs when trying to apply the rational to the irrational as the opposite will never occur except under some form of force or coercion; if you allow it. Usually the ‘gas lighting’ occurs under these forms, empathy, cultural ‘norms’, respect, authority and/or obedience as well as fear of loss, one of the most pervasive types of influence. Also, how to navigate the ‘universe of endless possibility’ which is but another ploy often used to ‘label’ you as not being open minded, progressive, inventive or some other form of expansive (some communities love this one as it is a blank slate) used to immediately disarm you toward mental imbalance in a seemingly non threatening manner with an invitation to engage in flights of fancy….what if? The point being you often don’t and can’t know the motive or outcome but you are aware of opposing forces; so avoid engagement.

When children are subjected to these forms of mental abuse without the ability to fight or flight, tomorrow’s addicts are being created.

When it comes to authority rest assured the irrational never prevail against reason or ultimate reality.


1. Iron
2. Zinc & Omega 3
3. Vitamin D
4. Selenium
5. Biotin
6. Folate (active form) – dark leafy greens
7. Vitamin C
8. Sea Kelp (for trace minerals, amino acids, and B vitamins)
9. Don’t excessively wash hair
10. Recommend sulfate-free shampoo
11. Filter water used to wash hair to remove fluoride and chlorine
12. Use none toxic dye if you color your hair
13. High levels of cortisol (stress) negatively affects hair
14. Smoking negatively affects hair.

Not likely any of the above and toxicity accounts for at least seven on his list even if he won’t go there in full disclosure regarding probability so I consider this video released three months ago as more ‘muddying’ of the waters but capitalizing on a trend search term. Sudden hair loss or thinning all of which can be caused by malnutrition or toxicity with stress alone being the least probable historically speaking.


The trouble with vegans. 

They’re malnourished because they have the wrong ecology. My cat is not vegan, my dog is not vegan. None of us are vegan because we are mammals. End of discussion. I refuse to entertain their particular brand of delusion even if corporate owned Loreal cares to cater to it in the upper right corner. Either way it will probably be the least harmful fleecing occurring in your week at about $5 if you buy the sulfate free vegan shampoo or add some veggies to your plate.

Video reviews. Terrain by Dr. Andrew Kaufman.

Excellent for the first hour or so…. and then…. talking to water and parting the Red Sea. They can’t help themselves, their cosmology and ecology is off kilter without a North Star so I guess in a way veganism and hair loss caused by telogen effluvium along with talking to water is a natural progression describing our current state of affairs.

Yes, we definitely need an honest paradigm in science and medicine but new/old age boomer scientific ideology or another ‘phenomena’ similar to viral theory? Probably not.

Alternative medicine like allopathic medicine is often insane and neither can help themselves due to nominalism essentially and that is why alternavita is different as I adhere to steadfast principle, natural order and universal law. 

I will never recommend turpentine, lavender sniffing, crystal therapy, neuro linguistic programming or any other new age snake oil to heal anything in your body, including resonance water. If you’re getting your science from esotericism you’re a nutcase, no different than an allopath and medical history is littered with both unfortunately. The clear path is narrow but it’s in your best interest to find it.

Water is naturally filtered and purified by microbes, soil, ozone, rocks, minerals, UV, friction/flow rate, depth and salt. Or temperature. Nobody on this earth makes it greater than its substance. 

It can become toxic due to a variety of reasons including stagnation due to excessive dam-ing.

A grain of truth will empty your pocket at least 50% of the time.


Water As Risk

The effects of various run off chemicals, fertilizers etc. on the water since 1850 in Europe and North America. The sudden rise approx. 1910 is the addition of chlorine.

More Hyaluronic Acid Benefits

Hyaluronic acid is a natural polymer, produced endogenously by the human body, which has unique physicochemical and biological properties and it is widely studied for possible applications in the area of inflammatory diseases.

Most cells in the human body are able to synthesize hyaluronic acid during certain processes in their cell cycle, although mesenchymal cells are believed to be the predominant source of hyaluronic acid. Hyalyronic acid differs from other GAGs because it is not sulphated or synthesized by Golgi enzymes in association with proteins; it is produced in the inner face of the plasma membrane, without any binding to a protein nucleus, by hyaluronan synthases. Hyaluronan synthases place the hyaluronic acid molecules in the extracellular space along the length of the polymeric chain giving rise to molecules of different sizes. This unique synthesis mechanism, which allows the molecule to be secreted during its production, is essential; otherwise, due to its enormous size, the cells would be destroyed. Incorrect deregulation of the expression of synthase results in abnormal hyaluronic acid production and, therefore, an increased risk of pathological events, altered cellular responses to injuries and aberrant biological processes. Growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) or keratinocyte factor, increase the rate of hyaluronic acid synthesis.

The degradation of hyaluronic acid in the human body is carried out by two distinct mechanisms: one is specific, mediated by enzymes, hyaluronidases, while the other is non-specific, determined by oxidative damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyaluronic acid is mainly transported by the lymph to the lymph nodes, where it is internalized and catabolized by the endothelial cells of the lymphatic vessels, a small amount of hyaluronic acid is transported into the bloodstream and degraded by the liver’s endothelial cells. Hyaluronic acid is decomposed into two- to six-membered polysaccharides by enteric bacteria, and these polysaccharides are then partially absorbed in the body by the small intestine and can move into the joints and other tissues.

Hyaluronic acid turnover is finely regulated by enzymatic synthesis and degradation and, when compared to other extracellular matrix components, this turnover is relatively fast. About a third is reversed every day.  During the inflammatory process, this turnover is disturbed, leading to the accumulation of the fragments associated with the spread of the inflammatory response in the extracellular spaces.

Hyaluronic acid performs its biological functions according to two basic mechanisms: it can act as a passive structural molecule and as a signaling molecule.

Hyaluronic acid is one of the main lubricating agents of the extracellular matrix in synovial fluid. The functions of hyaluronic acid in the joints include lubrication, which serves as a space filler to allow the joint to remain open and regulate cellular activities, as its elasticity absorbs mechanical impacts and avoids friction. During the inflammatory processes, uncontrolled turnover due to decreased pH and increased ROS can lead to losses in the thickness and viscosity of the hyaluronic acid barrier, leading to disorders such as osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

*Synovial fluid is joint fluid.


Tendons are “cords” of connective tissue that connect the muscle to the bone and can withstand stressful situations. During muscle contraction, it is these structures that assist in the movement of bones and joints. The term tendinopathy describes a clinical condition characterized by pain, swelling and functional limitations of the tendon and nearby anatomical structures. Hyaluronic acid is actively secreted by the tendon sheath and, similarly to what happens in the joints, as an important component of synovial fluid, it allows for smooth sliding and provides nourishment to the tendon. Low molecular weight hyaluronic acid is an effective tool in the treatment of various tendinopathies. 

High Dose Vitamin C and Hyaluronic Acid for Tendon Healing

During the early inflammatory phase of wound healing, high concentration of hyaluronic acid leads to increased infiltration and cell proliferation in the wound area. CD45 immunohistochemical staining showed that the cells in the repair area were leukocytes, most likely fibroblasts. These fibroblasts produce collagen fibers which improve repair and bridging and thus increase the tensile strength of the damaged tendon. 

Collagen contains two amino acids, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, which are essential for molecular stability. When these amino acids are synthesized, enzymes serve as a catalyst and oxygen, iron ions, alpha-ketoglutarate, and ascorbic acid are also required. As a result of the production of hydroxyproline-free collagen polypeptides, unstable collagen molecules are created. Ascorbic acid is a cofactor needed for the function of the prolyl hydroxylase enzyme involved at this stage.

Although collagen biosynthesis and baseline collagen levels are inversely correlated with age, the positive effect of ascorbic acid on collagen synthesis is independent of age. In ascorbate-induced collagen synthesis, regulation of collagen gene expression is directly and specifically activated.

The need for ascorbic acid during collagen biosynthesis is well known, and the importance of this vitamin is increasingly pointed out for matrix proteoglycan synthesis. An in vitro experimental study found that the optimal level of ascorbic acid to maintain flexor tendons from adult animals in organ culture with 48-h media would be more than 50 micrograms/ml.. 

In-group comparisons indicated that the therapeutic effect of vitamin C on tendon healing was especially seen in the later period. Moreover, the strength of the tendons in the hyaluronic acid group increased significantly from Day 15 to Day 30. This study demonstrated that both vitamin C and hyaluronic acid had therapeutic effects on tendon healing, especially in the late phase of tendon repair.

Intervertebral Disc Injury

The spine, the body’s main support, is composed of individual bone segments (vertebrae), ligaments and discs. Each of these discs is composed of three main components, including the nucleus pulposus (NP), with a gel-like texture, which give the column flexibility and mechanical strength. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is mediated by inflammation which results in discogenic pain.

Hyaluronic acid hydrogel for pain relief demonstrated that the hydrogel could reduce the main pathways for inflammatory signaling, and lead to the attenuation of inflammation and regulation of matrix components.

Studies show that the developed hydrogels do not show cytotoxicity after 7 days in culture. The possible protection mechanism of hyaluronic acid is reportedly to prevent NP cells from being inflamed.

It has been reported that the interferon α (INFα) signaling pathway is involved in the inflammatory cascade in degenerated annulus fibrosus. The study consists of an evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid on the INFα signaling pathway in a disc injury model. It can also evaluate the regenerative capacity of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid on the IVD (intervertebral disc) extracellular matrix and the glycosylation profile. The results showed that high molecular weight hyaluronic acid plays an important role as an anti-inflammatory, deregulating INFα. In addition, it down regulated the expression of the pro-apoptotic, insulin-like, growth-factor-binding protein 3 (IGFP3) and the apoptosis marker caspase 3, and modulated aggrecan and hyaluronic acid link protein (HAPLN1). This led to the synthesis of extracellular matrix in the injured discs, which were treated with high molecular weight hyaluronic acid.

Wound Healing

Wound healing is a dynamic and complex process that results in the restoration of tissue integrity and function. It is divided into three phases: hemostasis and inflammation, the proliferative phase, with tissue production and maturation and remodelling, when the tissue is replaced by mature collagen. These phases constitute a highly organized sequence of events involving many types of cells, including blood cells, epithelial and connective tissue cells, inflammatory cells, and many soluble factors, such as clotting factors, growth factors and cytokines. This process starts right after tissue damage, and lasts until the wound is completely closed and tissue regeneration is as functional as possible. Sometimes, this restoration process fails and compromises the integrity of the skin, leading to potentially serious complications, such as chronic wounds.

During the inflammatory phase of healing, hyaluronic acid accumulates in the wound bed and acts as an inflammation regulator. Hyaluronic acid usually occurs in low concentrations in the bloodstream; however hyaluronic acid levels rise rapidly at the wound site. At this stage, the main functions of hyaluronic acid are to modulate the migration of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the phagocytosis of invading microbes.

The literature already presents some studies that report that hyaluronic acid accelerates wound healing. Hyaluronic acid significantly promoted healing as compared to other commercial products. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with M1 macrophages, is reduced in the presence of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid . This reduction indicates that M1 macrophages are transformed into M2 macrophages, which is a fundamental part of the healing process. This transformation leads to the increased expression of growth factors (e.g., transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and VEGF). Improved wound healing was observed in vivo after local treatment compared to the control group, verifying that the healing process is also more efficient. Thus, the results show that modulating cytokine expression prevents the wound from becoming trapped in a chronic inflammatory state.

Inflammatory Diseases of the Oral Cavity

The oral cavity is defined as the space between the lips until the end of the hard palate. It contains the teeth, the buccal and gingival mucosa, the mandible and the hard palate, as well as the floor of the mouth and the tongue anterior to the circumvented papilla. It is one of the most complex micro-environments in the human body, where interactions between the host and microbes define health and disease. Teeth are the only functional hard tissues that extend from the inside of the human body, crossing a series of other hard (bones) and soft tissues (connective tissues and epithelia), and surrounded by a rigid biofilm formed by the richest collection of bacteria outside the colon. In the oral cavity, hyaluronic acid supports the structural integrity and homeostasis of tissues that regulate osmotic pressure and tissue lubrication.

The most common forms of inflammation in the oral cavity are gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and periodontitis (inflammation of the tissues that support the teeth). Inflammatory gingivitis generated by plaque is very common and usually recurrent, as it is mistakenly considered trivial. The cyclic recurrence of gingivitis episodes causes irreversible damage to periodontal structures. Periodontitis is characterized by inflammation and an immune response, which generally progresses to the destruction of the periodontium. It is initiated by diverse and complex biofilms that form in the teeth. The substances that are released from this biofilm gain access to the gingival tissue and initiate an inflammatory and immune response, which results in tissue destruction and bone resorption. The literature reports that in patients with chronic periodontitis, a rapid loss of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid occurs due to the enzymatic digestive processes.

Hyaluronic acid acts as a barrier to plaque bacteria and fulfils a variety of extracellular functions that are vital for maintaining healthy gum tissue. Gengigel® is a hyaluronic acid-based gel used to treat gingivitis. The therapeutic efficacy shows a significant improvement in the evaluated parameters (plaque index, gingival index and capillary bleeding), with more advantageous results for Gengigel®, showing that hyaluronic acid is effective in the treatment of gingivitis. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid can have beneficial effects on periodontal inflammation and oral wounds. The effect of 0.8% hyaluronic acid (GENGIGEL®) in patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis, as an adjunct to scaling and root planning, was assessed and the study consisted of subgingival application of 0.8% hyaluronic acid over one week. The evaluation was carried out after 6 and 12 weeks and showed an improvement over controls in the studied parameters (plaque index, gingival index, papillary bleeding, periodontal probing depth and clinical attachment loss).

Bladder Inflammation

Interstitial cystitis and/or bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) are characterized by discomfort, abdominal pain, and pain in the pelvic region. These conditions induce a strong inflammatory response, which begins with damage to the epithelial barrier. The epithelial layer of the bladder is protected by GAGs, such as hyaluronic acid. In inflammatory diseases of the bladder, defects occur at the level of this lining, which protects the submucosa of the bladder from urinary solutes. When it is damaged, it becomes permeable, allowing toxic substances to penetrate the bladder wall, causing a cascade of inflammatory responses that result in additional pain and damage to the urothelium. These defects are due to the continued loss of GAGs in the urinary epithelium.

In vitro efficacy of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate (CS), alone or in combination (HA/CS), in a model of bladder cells pre-treated with TNF-α to mimic IC/BPS. The results show that the inflammation was reduced in the presence of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulphate and the combination of both. All the biological markers show that both chondroitin sulphate and hyaluronic acid have the ability to modulate cells to a more physiological state, improving cell-cell communication and helping to restore the bladder barrier. The combination led to a reduction in the permeability of the endothelium and, therefore, the renewal of the epithelial tissue to a more physiological condition.

Using cystitis as a model researchers studied the effect of treatment with intravesical hyaluronic acid in a mouse model with hydrochloric acid-induced cystitis (HCl). The data show that the severity of inflammation decreased in the HA-treated group compared to the control. It was also found that the integrity of the bladder mucosa is preserved. Similarly, the effect of intravesical hyaluronic acid on cystitis induced by Escherichia coli (E. coli) in rats showed similar results. During bacterial cystitis, the activity of tissue myeloperoxidase increased, but the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased, hyaluronic acid treatment can reverse these changes. Regarding the uroepithelium healing, hyaluronic acid treatment seems to decrease the increased threshold of contraction, reduce oxidative stress and limit the infiltration of inflammatory cells. In comparison, in the treatment with gentamicin, the infiltration of inflammatory cells was reduced, but there was not improvement in oxidative degeneration, which shows that hyaluronic acid may have an important role in the treatment of bacterial cystitis.

Future outlook

The major complications associated with the delivery of hyaluronic acid are due to its relatively short half-life in biological fluids. The viscosity of hyaluronic acid solutions can also raise some questions, as this can hamper the administration or effectiveness of the developed models. However studies show promising results for the use of HA in the treatment of inflammatory pathologies. The great potential of hyaluronic acid in medicine has stimulated the interest of pharmaceutical companies which by means of new technologies can produce hyaluronic acid and several new derivatives in order to increase both the residence time in a variety of human tissues and the anti-inflammatory properties.

Hyaluronic Acid Benefits:

An overview of some of the benefits covered in previous posts. This list is not extensive as I did not cover the most commonly known benefits for eye health, arthritis, RA or osteoarthritis in depth.
  • IBD
  • Arthritis
  • Gout
  • Acute Lung Injury
  • Diabetes 
  • Obesity
  • Cardiac 
  • Kidney Injury
  • Tendinopathy
  •  Disc Injury
  • Wound Healing


The production of hyaluronic acid is related to nutrition and is naturally produced but can decline with age related malnutrition, this article highlights some of the important benefits of this glycosaminoglycan as an overview. No specific brands are recommended at this time but it is best to keep hyaluronic acid as a singular supplement rather than in combination supplements if you care to supplement. Vitamin C (sodium ascorbate form is best) is a necessary co-factor for production of collagen and carbohydrate digestion. Lactose can also increase benefit through enzymatic degradation. Hyaluronic acid can also help to activate macrophages in addition to changing polarity. In medicine, like other GAG’s it is also used as a transport molecule.

Collagen and GAG Types

Collagen is made up of proteins within a family of GAG’s, some are sulfated, chondroitin sulfate is one example. Hyaluronic acid is not a protein but a muco-polysaccharide. Both are considered GAG’s. The main difference between collagen and hyaluronic acid is that collagen is a polymer of protein while hyaluronic acid is the biopolymer of carbohydrates. Both are often found in the same bodily constituents (synovial fluid for example). Vitamin C, sodium ascorbate plays a critical role for both in bio synthesis and is required for the production of collagen.

Alternavita: All you need to know (critical info in a nutshell)..... by focusing exclusively on these foundational health and immune development issues up to 90% of chronic conditions can be eliminated.

WHO STATEMENTS: 2017 Millennium Goal

  1. Breastfeeding,
  2. food (security)
  3. and water security (sanitation)

are major protective factors against malnutrition and critical factors in the maturation of healthy gut microbiota, characterized by a transient bifidobacterial bloom before a global rise in anaerobes. Early depletion in gut Bifidobacterium longum, a typical maternal probiotic, known to inhibit pathogens, represents the first step in gut microbiota alteration associated with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Later, the absence of the Healthy Mature Anaerobic Gut Microbiota (HMAGM) leads to deficient energy harvest, vitamin biosynthesis and immune protection, and is associated with diarrhea, malabsorption and systemic invasion by microbial pathogens. A therapeutic diet and infection treatment may be unable to restore bifidobacteria and HMAGM.


Researchers found that malnourished children’s microbiota failed to follow the healthy pattern they identified in healthy children. The microbiota of malnourished children is immature, lagging in development behind that of their healthy peers. Supplementing these children’s meals with widely used therapeutic foods that increase calories and nutrient density reduces deaths from malnutrition, but it does not fix their persistent microbiota immaturity.

“Perhaps more insidious than slowing growth is malnutrition’s effect on less visible aspects of health, including impaired brain development and dysfunctional immunity, which follow these children throughout their lives”.

The Father of The Microbiome

Dr. Jeffrey Gordon


SIBO can cause severe malabsorption, serious malnutrition and immune deficiency syndromes in children (non breastfed) and adults. 

Prognosis is usually serious, determined mostly by the underlying disease that led to SIBO.



The WHO recommends that immunization or treatment be orally administered due to economic, logistical and security reasons. Furthermore, this route offers important advantages over systemic administration, such as reducing side effects, as the molecules are administered locally and have the ability to stimulate the GALT immune responses  (Levine and Dougan, 1998Neutra and Kozlowski, 2006Bermúdez-Humarán et al., 2011).



For ANY infectious or parasitic disease to start, it is ALWAYS a requisite that the host suffer IMMUNODEFICIENCY. At the same time, infectious and parasitic diseases themselves cause additional IMMUNE SUPPRESSION and more MALNUTRITION. This immune suppression is SECONDARY to the accumulation of free radicals, especially oxidizing species, that occurs during and after infectious and parasitic diseases.

Clinical Aspects of Immunology and Biochem J.


Current IBD Research 2016

Currently available treatments for IBD, which target the systemic immune system, induce immunosuppression, thereby exposing the patient to the risk of infections and malignancy. The interplay between the gut and the systemic immune system determines the final effect on target organs, including the bowel mucosa. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs.

Clinical & Translational Immunology (2016)
Gastroenterology and Liver Units, Department of Medicine, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel

Most importantly, the immune modulatory agents used today for IBD do not achieve remission in many patients.

Not all IBD patients benefit from currently available drugs. Young people with IBD do not want to be on long-term drug therapy. Oral immune therapy, while not yet studied in large cohorts of patients, may provide an answer to this unmet need.

Clinical & Translational Immunology (2016)
Gastroenterology and Liver Units, Department of Medicine, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel


Tolerance is the ability of the immune system to ‘see’ and respond appropriately. Without galactose (a necessary sugar) the immune system can not 'see'. Your immune system would not be able to function without galactose Your body wouldn’t know which cells are “good” and what cells are “bad.” Your body wouldn’t know who the invaders were and which ones should be attacked by antibodies. As you will learn the importance of these ‘sugars’ in gut microbiota health is a rapidly expanding field of research, only recently discovered, including HMO's (human milk oligosaccharides).

Why galactose? Milk sugar aka lactose has been shown to be very beneficial for the human body though unlike sucrose, lactose is made up of glucose and galactose. There is no fructose in lactose. It is a healthy disaccharide sugar. Galactose is known as the “brain sugar” and supports brain development of babies and children. Galactose helps triggers long-term memory formation. Galactose has been shown to inhibit tumor growth and stop its spread, particularly to the liver. This beneficial sugar can also enhance wound healing, decrease inflammation, enhances cellular communication, and increases calcium absorption.
What does immune ‘tolerance’ mean in simple language?
Immune tolerance, or immunological tolerance, or immunotolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response in a given organism. The Th1 cytokine profile is vital for clearance of certain organisms and ancillary immune activity, and a limiting effect on this cytokine profile may result in reduced chances for overcoming infections especially intra-cellular organisms residing within macrophages. Effective clearance will depend on appropriate macrophage activation (which occurs through IFN≥ release by Th1 and NK cells) and production of nitric oxide. If this pathway is disrupted IFN≥ secretion is blocked, impairing macrophage activation. Persistent blockade of these inhibitory receptors has lead to the breakdown in immune self tolerance, thereby increasing susceptibility to autoimmune or auto-inflammatory side effects, including rash, colitis, hepatitis and endocrinopathies. Many drugs may cause checkpoint blockade toxicity including pharmaceutical drugs termed ‘immuno therapy’ by pharmaceutical companies, these include Mab drugs and cancer treatments. Checkpoint Inhibitor–Induced Colitis: A New Type of Inflammatory Bowel Disease? Madeline Bertha, MD MS, corresponding author1 Emanuelle Bellaguara, MD, Timothy Kuzel, MD, and Stephen Hanauer, MD ACG Case Rep J. 2017; 4: e112. Published online 2017 Oct 11. doi: 10.14309/crj.2017.112 PMCID: PMC5636906 PMID: 29043290

The Elderly

Mammal milk is required for enhanced phagocytosis as shown by research, especially in the elderly. Whole fat mammal milk can actually restore phagocytosis in senescent cells in the elderly. Phagocytosis, by which immune cells ‘eat’ bacteria or infected cells, is one of the mechanisms that help to resist infections. Lactic acid bacteria strains like acidophilus also increases phagocytosis.