The next installment in the hyaluronic acid series, this one covering diabetes. The next might also cover hyaluronic acid and diabetic wound care. 


Hair loss

Hair loss. I don’t recall 2002 as the year America’s hair fell out or even Pearl Harbor after decades of stress and serious want that were surely sources of prolonged and extreme stress…. 

Granted, stress can cause hair loss and score one for men who suffer baldness to a greater degree than women (more hidden stress) but to suggest that this current phenom is ‘stress related’ when I highly doubt if there was any real investigation in to the reported ’cause’ as opposed to ‘topic surfing’ which is pretty much all the videos and articles entailed. No real deep dive whatsoever, more of a nothing to see here piece; which if one sees this en masse about hair loss a deep dive is in order. If we are ‘topic surfing’ aside from malnutrition one of the greatest causes of hair loss are ‘intoxicants’ which everyone is well aware of via chemo ‘therapeutics’. If you care to read the article as mentioned in YT video on same topic, link below… but I was sorry I wasted my time. 


Diabetes and insulin resistance.

Diabetes, insulin resistance as ’cause’ is controversial. Insulin is a very harmful substance (fat accumulation is often a compensatory/protective mechanism and may not be a ’cause’ worth pursuing or it may be the result of ‘starvation/malnutrition syndromes, fatty acid profile and the correlation isn’t meaningful. Inflammation is also a correlation, not necessarily a ’cause’. Much of this research pursues ‘symptom control’ and parallels that aren’t meaningful (genetic expression and/or antibody as treatment) as is per usual so read between the lines. Systemic administration of a drug (for IBD) is a bottom line indicator in comparison that leads to inflammation, organ damage and possible malignancy. Very clear.

However, do not want to negate the harmful effects of sugar as we were likely never designed to withstand current consumption levels of sugar. Dr. Jason Fung among others are notably doubtful of current assessments regarding diabetes but since there isn’t a lot of research conducted by those who hold his position not going to comment on it too much and I’ll just leave that book open. Diabetes Type II is one ‘lifestyle’ condition that very much pre-dates the majority of current ‘lifestyle’ conditions but historically it was one mostly suffered by the indulgent and the condition is epidemic worldwide. You also can’t rule out toxicity syndromes during those historic time periods making ’cause’ difficult to fully assess (alcohol among others). Both Type I and Type II diabetes can be prevented with breastfeeding. This at least makes ‘sugar’ similar to ‘insulin resistance’ as single cause somewhat debatable. So I understand the point, when suppressing inflammation one often makes the patient much worse than if things had run their natural course but prolonged inflammation isn’t normal. I would just say if homeostasis can be reached without intervention fine, if not pursue a healthy immune response over symptom control if not an emergency when it comes to inflammation. Restoring a healthy immune response and reducing inflammation can be addressed in a safe manner with numerous substances, hyaluronic acid is but one.

Autophagy via intermittent fasting (Dr. Jason Fung) is an effective way to combat diabetes without drugs and this was how most people lived pre-diabetes ‘epidemic’. They weren’t constantly releasing insulin by grazing, they stopped eating at a certain time each day fasting for at least 12 hours, breakfast didn’t exist as we know it today (a marketing ploy) and they were much more active, all preventative measures against diabetes. This includes eating fermented foods that also reduce ‘sugar’ vs. processed foods or the standard American diet (SAD).


Although exogenous HA has been described as unable to restore or replace the properties and activities of endogenous HA, it can still provide satisfactory pain relief…. I am guessing they mean that supplementing isn’t comparable but as a therapeutic, even stand alone, it definitely promoted healing, restoration and lessened further damage even in human subjects. I didn’t see any instance in these reviews where the objective wasn’t met. I included the full statement as is.

Hand health and hyaluronic acid self reported benefits.

As a paper designer I do many projects per week using paper and I spend a lot of time using scissors, what I meant by cutting. I also type a lot and have my hands on the mouse at least 6 hours per day so I might have hand related inflammation that while not noticeable to any large degree still might be one of the areas where I might notice the effects of hyaluronic acid (swelling) which I didn’t notice anywhere else…. to date… I’ll keep you posted.

And finally meant to say I don’t know if there is a Vitamin C deficiency test, aside from symptomatic as in scurvy not rickets but lack could definitely affect collagen formation among other known issues such as carb digestion so understanding co-factors is extremely important and I only saw one paper where hyaluronic acid was combined with Vitamin C in assessment of effectiveness.

Obesity and Type II Diabetes

Owing to their unique biological functions, hyaluronic acid (HA) and its derivatives have been explored extensively for biomedical applications. In particular, self-assembled HA nanoparticles (HA-NPs) have been used widely as target-specific and long-acting nano carriers for the delivery of a wide range of therapeutic or diagnostic agents. Recently, it has been demonstrated that empty HA-NPs without bearing any therapeutic agent can be used therapeutically for the treatment of inflammatory diseases via modulating inflammatory responses. 

Self-assembled hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (HA-NPs) have also been extensively investigated for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications owing to their biocompatibility and receptor-binding properties.

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural polymer, produced endogenously by the human body, which has several unique biological properties and exhibits desirable biocompatibility. It has been widely studied for possible applications in the area of inflammatory diseases. Although exogenous HA has been described as unable to restore or replace the properties and activities of endogenous HA, it can still provide satisfactory pain relief.  

Hyaluronic acid was shown to have other peculiar properties. High molecular weight HA has typically anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties and inhibits cell proliferation. On the other hand, low molecular weight HA shows opposite characteristics, favoring inflammation and promoting cell growth. These effects are often mediated by several cell surface receptors, including CD44, receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility (RHAMM), lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor 1 (Lyve-1), HA receptor for endocytosis (HARE), and Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 (TLR4-2), all of them able to trigger different intracellular signaling cascades. 

Diabetes And Inflammation

More than 370 million people around the world suffer from T2D, which is a complex metabolic disease. T2D is characterized by obesity-induced insulin resistance and pro inflammatory response in insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues, including liver, adipose tissue, and muscle plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of T2D such as obesity-induced insulin resistance and associated complications

The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and associated complications is now well established. Several conditions that are driven by inflammatory processes are also associated with diabetes, including rheumatoid arthritis, gout, psoriasis and Crohn’s disease, and various anti-inflammatory drugs have been approved or are in late stages of development for the treatment of these conditions. Many reviews discuss the rationale for the use of anti-inflammatory treatments in patients with diabetes. Future immuno-modulatory treatments may not target a specific disease, but could instead act on a dysfunctional pathway that causes several conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome.

CD44 receptor is implicated in the inflammatory process of diabetes. Genetic blockade of CD44 improved insulin resistance by suppressing adipose tissue inflammation in DIO (diet induced obesity) mice, leading to normalized fasting plasma glucose level and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue in diet induced obesity mice. In humans, CD44 was over expressed in inflammatory cells in obese adipose tissue, and its serum level was positively correlated with insulin resistance and glycemic control. These results imply that CD44 is a key factor to cause insulin resistance via adipose tissue inflammation, and its blocking might be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of T2D by breaking the links between obesity-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation. Blockade of CD44 by anti-CD44 antibody treatment in diet induced obesity mice suppressed visceral adipose tissue inflammation compared to controls and decreased fasting plasma glucose level, weight gain, liver steatosis, and insulin resistance to levels equal to or better than those seen in therapies using the anti-diabetic drugs metformin and pioglitazone. From another perspective, Rho et al. reported a novel therapeutic function of empty hyaluronic acid nano particles in adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and glycemic control. Similar to anti-CD44 antibody treatment, hyaluronic acid nano particle treatment in obese mice improved insulin sensitivity and normalized blood glucose levels by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation as indicated by reduced macrophage content, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammasome activity. Recently, it has been reported that hyaluronic acid nano particles has anti-adipogenic and lipogenic effects in obese mice, leading to a reduction in fat accumulation and body weight. Treatment with hyaluronic acid nano particles in mice reduced fat mass through suppression of adipogenesis and lipogenesis as indicated by decreased adipogenic and lipogenic regulators, while these effects were not observed in CD44 mice, suggesting a potential anti-obesity strategy targeting CD44 by hyaluronic acid nano particles.

The effect of hyaluronic acid in diet induced obese mice has many similarities to cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists in terms of hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue inflammation. CB1R antagonists are potential therapeutic agents currently under early-stage clinical development for the treatment of obesity and its metabolic complications. Similar to hyaluronic acid nano particles CB1R antagonists improve obesity-induced insulin resistance by suppressing adipose tissue inflammation via inflammasomes as well as reduce epididymal white adipose tissues (eWATs) accumulation and body weight. Once safety, tolerability, and improved therapeutic efficacy of hyaluronic acid nano particles are proven, their clinical testing might be warranted for the treatment of obesity and its metabolic complications.

Empty hyaluronic acid nano particles not bearing any drug has therapeutic effects on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. HA-NPs inhibited not only the receptor-mediated internalization of low-molecular-weight (LMW) free HA but also LMW free HA-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in mouse primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggest that an empty hyaluronic acid nano particle itself can be a therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. 


The production of hyaluronic acid is related to nutrition and is naturally produced but can decline with age related malnutrition, this article highlights some of the important benefits of this glycosaminoglycan as an overview. No specific brands are recommended at this time but it is best to keep hyaluronic acid as a singular supplement rather than in combination supplements if you care to supplement. Vitamin C (sodium ascorbate form is best) is a necessary co-factor for production of collagen and carbohydrate digestion. Lactose can also increase benefit through enzymatic degradation. Hyaluronic acid can also help to activate macrophages in addition to changing polarity. In medicine, like other GAG’s it is also used as a transport molecule.


Collagen and GAG Types

Collagen is made up of proteins within a family of GAG’s, some are sulfated, chondroitin sulfate is one example. Hyaluronic acid is not a protein but a muco-polysaccharide. Both are considered GAG’s. The main difference between collagen and hyaluronic acid is that collagen is a polymer of protein while hyaluronic acid is the biopolymer of carbohydrates. Both are often found in the same bodily constituents (synovial fluid for example). Vitamin C, sodium ascorbate plays a critical role for both in bio synthesis and is required for the production of collagen.

Alternavita: All you need to know (critical info in a nutshell)..... by focusing exclusively on these foundational health and immune development issues up to 90% of chronic conditions can be eliminated.

WHO STATEMENTS: 2017 Millennium Goal

  1. Breastfeeding,
  2. food (security)
  3. and water security (sanitation)

are major protective factors against malnutrition and critical factors in the maturation of healthy gut microbiota, characterized by a transient bifidobacterial bloom before a global rise in anaerobes. Early depletion in gut Bifidobacterium longum, a typical maternal probiotic, known to inhibit pathogens, represents the first step in gut microbiota alteration associated with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Later, the absence of the Healthy Mature Anaerobic Gut Microbiota (HMAGM) leads to deficient energy harvest, vitamin biosynthesis and immune protection, and is associated with diarrhea, malabsorption and systemic invasion by microbial pathogens. A therapeutic diet and infection treatment may be unable to restore bifidobacteria and HMAGM.


Researchers found that malnourished children’s microbiota failed to follow the healthy pattern they identified in healthy children. The microbiota of malnourished children is immature, lagging in development behind that of their healthy peers. Supplementing these children’s meals with widely used therapeutic foods that increase calories and nutrient density reduces deaths from malnutrition, but it does not fix their persistent microbiota immaturity.

“Perhaps more insidious than slowing growth is malnutrition’s effect on less visible aspects of health, including impaired brain development and dysfunctional immunity, which follow these children throughout their lives”.

The Father of The Microbiome

Dr. Jeffrey Gordon


SIBO can cause severe malabsorption, serious malnutrition and immune deficiency syndromes in children (non breastfed) and adults. 

Prognosis is usually serious, determined mostly by the underlying disease that led to SIBO.



The WHO recommends that immunization or treatment be orally administered due to economic, logistical and security reasons. Furthermore, this route offers important advantages over systemic administration, such as reducing side effects, as the molecules are administered locally and have the ability to stimulate the GALT immune responses  (Levine and Dougan, 1998Neutra and Kozlowski, 2006Bermúdez-Humarán et al., 2011).



For ANY infectious or parasitic disease to start, it is ALWAYS a requisite that the host suffer IMMUNODEFICIENCY. At the same time, infectious and parasitic diseases themselves cause additional IMMUNE SUPPRESSION and more MALNUTRITION. This immune suppression is SECONDARY to the accumulation of free radicals, especially oxidizing species, that occurs during and after infectious and parasitic diseases.

Clinical Aspects of Immunology and Biochem J.


Current IBD Research 2016

Currently available treatments for IBD, which target the systemic immune system, induce immunosuppression, thereby exposing the patient to the risk of infections and malignancy. The interplay between the gut and the systemic immune system determines the final effect on target organs, including the bowel mucosa. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs.

Clinical & Translational Immunology (2016)
Gastroenterology and Liver Units, Department of Medicine, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel

Most importantly, the immune modulatory agents used today for IBD do not achieve remission in many patients.

Not all IBD patients benefit from currently available drugs. Young people with IBD do not want to be on long-term drug therapy. Oral immune therapy, while not yet studied in large cohorts of patients, may provide an answer to this unmet need.

Clinical & Translational Immunology (2016)
Gastroenterology and Liver Units, Department of Medicine, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel


Tolerance is the ability of the immune system to ‘see’ and respond appropriately. Without galactose (a necessary sugar) the immune system can not 'see'. Your immune system would not be able to function without galactose Your body wouldn’t know which cells are “good” and what cells are “bad.” Your body wouldn’t know who the invaders were and which ones should be attacked by antibodies. As you will learn the importance of these ‘sugars’ in gut microbiota health is a rapidly expanding field of research, only recently discovered, including HMO's (human milk oligosaccharides).

Why galactose? Milk sugar aka lactose has been shown to be very beneficial for the human body though unlike sucrose, lactose is made up of glucose and galactose. There is no fructose in lactose. It is a healthy disaccharide sugar. Galactose is known as the “brain sugar” and supports brain development of babies and children. Galactose helps triggers long-term memory formation. Galactose has been shown to inhibit tumor growth and stop its spread, particularly to the liver. This beneficial sugar can also enhance wound healing, decrease inflammation, enhances cellular communication, and increases calcium absorption.
What does immune ‘tolerance’ mean in simple language?
Immune tolerance, or immunological tolerance, or immunotolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response in a given organism. The Th1 cytokine profile is vital for clearance of certain organisms and ancillary immune activity, and a limiting effect on this cytokine profile may result in reduced chances for overcoming infections especially intra-cellular organisms residing within macrophages. Effective clearance will depend on appropriate macrophage activation (which occurs through IFN≥ release by Th1 and NK cells) and production of nitric oxide. If this pathway is disrupted IFN≥ secretion is blocked, impairing macrophage activation. Persistent blockade of these inhibitory receptors has lead to the breakdown in immune self tolerance, thereby increasing susceptibility to autoimmune or auto-inflammatory side effects, including rash, colitis, hepatitis and endocrinopathies. Many drugs may cause checkpoint blockade toxicity including pharmaceutical drugs termed ‘immuno therapy’ by pharmaceutical companies, these include Mab drugs and cancer treatments. Checkpoint Inhibitor–Induced Colitis: A New Type of Inflammatory Bowel Disease? Madeline Bertha, MD MS, corresponding author1 Emanuelle Bellaguara, MD, Timothy Kuzel, MD, and Stephen Hanauer, MD ACG Case Rep J. 2017; 4: e112. Published online 2017 Oct 11. doi: 10.14309/crj.2017.112 PMCID: PMC5636906 PMID: 29043290

The Elderly

Mammal milk is required for enhanced phagocytosis as shown by research, especially in the elderly. Whole fat mammal milk can actually restore phagocytosis in senescent cells in the elderly. Phagocytosis, by which immune cells ‘eat’ bacteria or infected cells, is one of the mechanisms that help to resist infections. Lactic acid bacteria strains like acidophilus also increases phagocytosis.