Colostrum Goes Bio Tech
Why are drug makers turning toward bovine colostrum?
Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of death and resulting malnutrition globally. Hospital associated diarrheal conditions also contribute to poor health outcomes.
Rotavirus is a leading cause of diarrhea deaths, followed by Shigella and Salmonella. Among children under 5 years old, the three aetiologies responsible for the most deaths were rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, and Shigella. Diarrheal disease aetiology separate from overall diarrheal mortality includes enteric adenovirus, Aeromaons, Entamoeba histolytica (amoebiasis), Campylobacter enteritis (Campylobacter), cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium), typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (tEPEC), enterotoxigenic E coli (ETEC; both ST and LT), norovirus, non-typhoidal Salmonella, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus), shigellosis (Shigella) and Vibrio cholerae.
The leading risk factors for diarrhea include: unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene which in turn may result in serious malnutrition syndromes.
Diarrheal resultant conditions may include endotoxemia and hemolytic uremic syndrome
Endotoxemia is a critical component in the development of hemolytic uremic syndrome in a mouse model that closely mimics the condition in humans. Since this condition is caused by the ingestion of E. coli strains that express both a toxin (Shiga-like toxin 2) and LPS, oral administration of colostrum will treat and ameliorate the disease. Bovine colostrum ameliorates diarrhea in infection with diarrheogenic E. coli, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and E. coli expressing intimin and hemolysin, it supports wound healing and also the regeneration of damaged intestinal mucosa.
*Traveler’s diarrhea is usually caused by Escherichia coli.
Mucosa-associated adherent, invasive Escherichia coli (E. coli), which are pro-inﬂammatory and resistant to killing by mucosal macrophages, may be associated with the pathogenesis of CD (Crohn’s Disease).
During malnutrition, endotoxemia impairs immune cell function leading to recurrent infections and accelerates the development of AIDS.
Probiotics and pre-biotics prevent diarrheal disease
Probiotics in combination with pre-biotics have become an important means of preventing and treating disease. Several types of diarrhea have been successfully treated with probiotics. This practice, however, may represent only the “tip of the iceberg” because the potential beneﬁts of probiotic therapy promise to be almost limitless. Research to fully realize this potential must focus on the following areas:
• the identiﬁcation of strains of Biﬁdobacterium and Lactobacillus that can withstand passage through the gastrointestinal tract
• the identiﬁcation of probiotic species and strains that are effective against speciﬁc disease processes or for the prevention of disease
• the investigation of mechanisms of probiotic action
• the identiﬁcation of additional compounds that will enhance the growth of probiotic organisms (eg, the development of more effective and safer pre-biotics and selection or development of strains that will adhere to the intestinal mucosal cells in the population at large to allow for true colonization and growth
Antibiotic use is detrimental for long term outcomes
Exposure to antibiotics early in life, maternally or via the food chain, can have a large effect on gut microbiota, disturbing its composition and functionality, which in turn can disrupt gut barrier function and lead to inﬂux bacterial fragments into blood. As a result, low-grade chronic inﬂammation and metabolic endotoxemia are produced, affecting host metabolism and insulin resistance. This microbiota alteration in early life has long-lasting effects on bodyweight in adulthood; epidemiological studies have shown that early exposure to antibiotics is associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders later in life. Those microbiota bacteria are important for body homeostasis, by participating in the digestive process, energy regulation, SCFA production, vitamin synthesis, protection against pathogenic microorganisms, and modulation of the immunologic system.
Bovine Colostrum Increases Colonization Of Probiotics 52 Fold
An ideal probiotic would be one that can survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract, establish itself permanently in the small intestine and colon, and provide a speciﬁc health beneﬁt for the host by eliciting an immune response. Bovine colostrum is a rich source of bioactive components which are important in the development of the intestine, in stimulating gut structure and function and in preparing the gut surface for subsequent colonization of microbes. Nutritional intake may inﬂuence the intestinal epithelial glycome and in turn the available attachment sites for bacteria. In a study released in 2019, researchers tested the hypothesis that bovine colostrum may inﬂuence the intestinal cell surface and in turn the attachment of commensal organisms. Human HT-29 intestinal cells were exposed to a bovine colostrum fraction (BCF) rich in free oligosaccharides. The adherence of several commensal bacteria, comprising mainly biﬁdo bacteria, to the intestinal cells was signiﬁcantly enhanced (up to 52-fold) for all strains tested which spanned species that are found across the human lifespan.
Adhesion of pathogens reduced
Importantly, the changes to the HT-29 cell surface did not support enhanced adhesion of the enteric pathogens tested.
Bovine colostrum results in increased phagocytosis and reduced bacterial and viral load in 24 hours independent of immune factors
Researchers evaluated the effects on the innate immune system after exposure to a consumable low-molecular weight fraction colostrum of immunoglobulin depleted bovine colostrum whey. Colostrum treatment resulted in a rapid increase in phagocytosis. Reduced bacterial and viral loads were observed in lungs within 24 h. Viral load was also reduced when colostrum was introduced intranasally. The data suggest that the support of antimicrobial immune defense mechanisms and maturation of antigen-presenting cells in vitro translates to protection in vivo when the colostrum product is introduced across mucosal membranes.
Speciﬁc probiotics when used in conjunction with bovine colostrum as a prebiotic supports their use in diarrheal and resulting conditions such as endotoxemia and hemolytic uremic syndrome.
A Healthy Microbiome Is Necessary To Prevent SIBO
Secondary Risk Factors (see primary risk factors)
• Normal gut ﬂora may provide several beneﬁcial effects to the host. These include fermentation of un-digested dietary residue and endogenous mucus producing short chain fatty acids, which are nutrients to the colonic epithelial cells and conservation of energy, absorption of NaCl and water, particularly from the right colon, synthesis of vitamin K, control of epithelial cell proliferation, protection against pathogens by a barrier effect and training of the immune system.
• Secondary deﬁciency of disaccharidases (e.g., lactase) is well known in patients with SIBO. Lactase deﬁciency is an immune deﬁciency. This results in maldigestion of carbohydrates such as lactulose, sucrose and sorbitol. Fermentation of carbohydrates leads to formation of short chain fatty acids like acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid.
• Other causes include immunodeﬁciency conditions, such as common variable immunodeﬁciency, IgA deﬁciency, and hypogammaglobulinemia.
• E. coli is commonly isolated in patients with bacterial overgrowth. Certain species of bacteria are more commonly found in aspirates of the jejunum taken from patients with bacterial overgrowth.
Non diarrheal factors, food poisoning and other prebiotics
Some related, though nondiarrheal, situations involving the effects of probiotics on bacterial overgrowth. In patients with chronic kidney failure, there is often a bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine, resulting in toxins. These toxic compounds were signiﬁcantly lower in patients treated with 2 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, resulting in a signiﬁcantly better quality of life. Of public health importance, Campylobacter jejuni shedding in broiler chicks was all but eliminated by the administration of L. acidophilus. C. jejuni is often the cause of food poisoning in humans.
Lactulose has been used clinically to provide symptomatic relief in severe liver disease. Speciﬁcally, it lowers blood ammonia concentrations and prevents the development of hepatic encephalopathy. Because biﬁdobacteria and other colonic organisms metabolize lactulose, colonic contents become acidic, converting NH3 to NH4+, which serves to draw the NH3 from the blood to the colon. NH4+ is then excreted in the feces.
Subjects receiving fructooligosaccharides or inulin per day had higher hydrogen and methane outputs in their breath than did subjects fed sucrose. Fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations (eg, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids) did not change signiﬁcantly. Rafﬁnose ingestion, a naturally occurring sugar consisting of one molecule each of glucose, galactose, and fructose, resulted in a decrease in fecal pH, an increase in the short-chain fatty acid content, and an increase in Lactobacillus ssp. counts in rats.
Without galactose (a simple milk sugar disaccharide, glucose and lactose) the immune system can not ‘see’. B-galactosidase, also called lactase is important for organisms as a key provider in the production of energy and a source of carbons through the break down of lactose to galactose and glucose.
The lactase enzyme, which has the same function of beta-gal helps digest dairy. Galactosidase treatment is a common ﬁrst stage modiﬁcation of the three major subtypes of Gc protein to GcMAF (a popular and effective immune therapy treatment).