February 17, 2019©
Remember, you will be faulted not because you are ignorant against your will, but because you neglect to seek out what makes you ignorant.
Bovine Colostrum For Inflammatory Disorders Of The Gastrointestinal Tract
The alimentary tract is a prone to inflammatory disorders due at least in part to the presence of associated immune tissue.
Disorders of the alimentary tract may be chronic in nature, persisting until the death of the subject.
IBD is a dysfunctional autophagic system
- Intestinal barrier loss alone is insufficient to initiate disease.
Intricate balance between tolerance and immunological response
The gastrointestinal tract is colonized by an abundance of bacteria, which are in constant interaction with the epithelial lining usually leading to an intricate balance between tolerance and immunological response. In certain circumstances exposure of the gut mucosa to foreign antigens (both microbial and non-microbial) may trigger inflammation that may further radiate to affect remote tissues in the body.
It is now recognized that inflammation of the alimentary tract is significant in opportunist infection AIDS, Crohn’s and colitis.
The alimentary tract includes the entire length of the gastrointestinal structure including the lips, mouth, tongue, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, rectum and anus of the subject. Also included are organs or structures that are in physical communication with the lumen of the alimentary tract including the liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and the salivary glands.
Failure to rebuild immune memory
Inflammatory disorders of the alimentary tract may involve any one of more of the various tissues, regions, structures or organs of the alimentary tract including the mucosa (mucositis), mouth (stomatitis), tongue (glossitis), gums (gingivitis), oesophagis (oesophagitis), stomach (gastritis), colon (colitis), ilieum (ileitis), liver (hepatitis), gallbladder (cholecystitis), pancreas (pancreatitis), or parotid salivary gland (parotitis). Clinically, the inflammatory disorder of the alimentary tract may present as increased permeability leading to diarrhea, enteropathy, pain, bloating, constipation, anorexia or malabsorption leading to a decline in body weight, failure to rebuild immune memory in the alimentary tract, hypergammaglobulinaemia and cachexia.
For any infectious or parasitic disease to start, it is always a requisite that the host suffer IMMUNODEFICIENCY. At the same time, infectious and parasitic diseases themselves cause additional IMMUNE SUPPRESSION and more MALNUTRITION. This immune suppression is SECONDARY to the accumulation of free radicals, especially oxidizing species, that occurs during and after infectious and parasitic diseases.
Clinical Aspects of Immunology and Biochem J.
Effects on barrier function (leaky gut), gastrointestinal inflammation and endotoxemia
Bovine immunoglobulins and colostrum can support intestinal barrier function. When intestinal barrier function is compromised, bacterial products such as LPS, food allergens, as well as pathogens can passively cross the epithelial layer and cause inflammation and infection in the mucosa.
Antibodies against endotoxins are contained in the natural spectrum of antibodies from bovine colostrum.
Bovine IgG can also have anti-inflammatory effects by preventing translocation of bacterial components across the epithelial layer.
Bovine serum derived IgG could prevent the translocation of bacterial components over the epithelium, thus preventing inflammatory responses to bacterial ligands.
Bovine colostrum enhances immune function by increasing T and B cell response
Immunoglobulins consist of an antigen binding domain and a constant region. This constant region is essential for inducing phagocytosis and clearance of pathogens, complement fixation, antigen presentation and immune regulation. These downstream effector functions of immunoglobulins are dependent on binding of the constant region to immunoglobulin Fc receptors (Fc receptors). These receptors are primarily expressed on the cell surface of immune cells.
Bovine IgG is able to bind to Fcγ receptors on human cells. Bovine IgG was shown to bind to human monocytes, neutrophils and macrophages, as well as to B cells.
It its confirmed that Bovine IgG can bind to human FcγRII. Bovine IgG is able to form immune complexes with bacterial and viral pathogens, mediate antigen presentation and phagocytosis killing in phagocytes.
Increased CD8+ T cell activation is increased upon oral intake of bovine colostrum.
In addition to immune exclusion by direct binding of bovine IgG to pathogens, FcγRII mediated pathogen clearance and killing by macrophages and neutrophils, bovine IgG plays a role in enhancing adaptive immune responses by increasing T and B cell responses.
Bovine colostrum increased NKT (Natural Killer T cells) containing LPS-specific bovine IgGs in the spleen and Peyer’s patch. It is not clear at present if these NK cells are induced by IgG or by other factors present in colostrum.
IgG molecules are created and released by plasma B cells.
Olive Oil, Fish Oil, Cod Liver Oil or Mct Oil Can Also Help For Inflammation Or Hyper-Inflammation Regardless Of Immune State Or HLA-DR Expression
The primary function of HLA-DR is to present peptide antigens, potentially foreign in origin, to the immune system for the purpose of eliciting or suppressing T-(helper)-cell responses that eventually lead to the production of antibodies against the same peptide antigen. Antigen presenting cells (macrophages, B-cells and dendritic cells) are the cells in which DR are typically found. Increased abundance of DR ‘antigen’ on the cell surface is often in response to stimulation, and, therefore, DR is also a marker for immune stimulation.
Abnormal expression of HLA-DR is associated with a poor prognosis in several clinical conditions.
Critical care patients may undergo changes in inflammatory and immune function. Fatty acids (FA) from can be incorporated into leukocyte membranes and according to their physical chemistry characteristics may influence cellular immunological functions.
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules from the major complex of histocompatibility class II (MHC II) system expressed on monocytes/macrophages surface represent the link between innate and acquired immunity, playing a central role in activation of the cell-mediated immune response.
The decreased expression of HLA-DR on simultaneously or previously activated but not on nonactivated human monocytes/macrophages after fish oil suggests a potential benefit in the use for hyper-inflammatory conditions followed by an immunodeficiency state, as occurs in sepsis, severe trauma, and burns.
For instance, increased surface expression of HLA-DR in activated monocytes/macrophages is seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and is associated with stronger activation of their inflammatory response and worsening of their clinical condition. On the other hand, a marked decrease of surface HLA-DR in monocytes can be observed after massive hyper-inflammatory reactions and is associated with functional deactivation of monocytes and poor prognosis in sepsis.
Taken together, these observations suggest that surface expression of HLA-DR on monocytes/macrophages is strongly dependent on the activation state of these leukocytes. Increment or decrement of such expression may be desirable, according to the patient’s clinical condition.
A reduction in antigen-presenting function may impair T cell activation, thus decreasing both inflammatory cytokine and B cell production.
Fish oil influences HLA-DR surface expression by monocytes/macrophages according to the leukocyte activation state. Fish oil alone and mainly when combined at high doses with MCT decreased surface expression of HLA-DR on simultaneously or previously-activated monocytes/macrophages but had no effect on leukocytes that were not activated.
Considering that Fish Oil is infused in combination with other conventional lipid emulsions (soybean oil MCT/LCT, or lipid emulsions composed of 80% olive oil and 20% soybean oil) in clinical practice, we also compared the effect of pure Fish Oil with a experimental mixture composed of a high concentration of this lipid emulsion with MCT/LCT.
The improved effects observed with the mixture of Fish Oil and MCT versus pure Fish Oil were observed in previous studies. These studies showed the Fish Oil-MCT combination to increase the favorable effect of Fish Oil on eicosanoid production in a experimental model of colitis and also to favorably effect the number of spleen resident, non-opsonized carbon particle phagocyting macrophages. The stronger effect of the Fish Oil MCT mixture when compared to pure Fish Oil may be related to improved use of omega-3 fatty acids by monocytes/macrophages. While omega-3 FA from Fish Oil are poor substrates for lipoprotein lipase (LPL), medium chain triglycerides (MCT) are more quickly degraded by this enzyme and are also a quick source of energy. Experimental studies showed that when omega-3 fatty acids are infused with MCT, they are more easily released for cellular use.
The recognized anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids provided by fish oil have been speculated to be useful in treating chronic and hyper-inflammatory conditions. Simultaneously activated monocytes/macrophages may be considered a valid model to simulate chronic inflammation, where leukocytes are under frequent activation stimuli. Considering that in chronic inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis, increased HLA-DR expression on macrophages surface may be present and associated with disease severity, it is possible that reduced expression of these surface molecules induced by Fish Oil on simultaneously activated monocytes/macrophages could be protective against chronic inflammation.
Fish oil lipid emulsion, mainly when associated with lipid emulsion rich in medium-chain triglycerides, distinctly influences surface expression of HLA-DR on activated monocyte/macrophages. The inhibition of HLA-DR by Fish Oil may be protective in conditions where monocytes/macrophages are in constant activation.
* Mct oil when used alone causes severe inflammation and oxidative stress in colitis. Read more here. MS patients should refrain from coconut oil use. A primary source of ketone bodies are the medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) found in coconut oil. A balance of SCFA’s, MCFA’S and LCFA’s is required to alleviate aberrant immune responses. The point above is that despite popular long held belief, HLA-DR is epigenetic and that particular gene expression is reversible.
Boswellia can also block hyper-inflammatory response
Lactic acid bacteria can also modulate HLA-DR expression preventing graft vs. host rejection
Leukocytes (white blood cells) are found in bovine colostrum. The number of leukocytes in colostrum can easily exceed 1,000,000 cells/ml. Colostral leukocytes are primarily composed of lymphocytes (»23%), neutrophils (»38%) and macrophages (»40%). Each of these cells contribute to the overall cellular immune system in animals.
White blood cells (leukocytes). Primarily, three types of functional white blood cells are present in colostrum, including neutrophils, macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells. Each has the ability to phagocytize (engulf) microorganisms and other foreign bodies and apply substances carried internally to the destruction of the microorganisms. Their functions are dramatically enhanced when antibodies first attach to the microorganisms.
Among most mammals, the placenta is not effective at transferring antibodies to the fetus: antibodies are transferred immediately after birth via the colostrum.
Colostrum is rich in various antibodies and is the only living immune supplement product on the market with all proteins left intact.
However, bovine colostrum contains immunomodulatory capabilities independent of antibody response making it an ideal product capable of immune adaptation.
1 tbsp. per day of any beneficial oil or combination of beneficial oils (LCFA’s, SCFA’s and MCT’s) are all that is necessary to achieve results. Do not overuse beneficial oils. They have blood thinning properties, in addition some oils like coconut oil (not Mct oil) produce negative effects if dose is too high. MS patients should probably avoid coconut oil. Olive oils and fish oils offer greater and better studies of efficacy. Coconut oil contains too many components and studies are mixed regarding clear benefit, small amounts or topical use only.
Four classes of immunoglobulins are present in serum: IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE. It functions as an antioxidant protection and increases immunity.
- IgM is in the first line of immune system defense.
- IgA are common antibodies in mucosal areas such as the nose, lungs, eyes and ears. They prevent mucosal infections by causing microbes to agglutinate (clump). In the intestine, IgA is an immunosuppressant that inhibits proinflammatory responses to oral antigens. IgA deficiency is common.
- IgG antibodies inactivate harmful infectious organisms by binding to them. This reduces or eliminates microbes’ ability to cause illness. IgG binds toxins.
High percentage bovine colostrum IgG
The ratio of IgG to total protein of the colostrum collected from the cow is at least 10%, more preferably 20%, more preferably at least 30%, more preferably at least 40%, more preferably at least 50%.
IgG-mediated binding of pathogens causes their immobilization, binding, recognition and ingestion by phagocytic immune cells leading to the elimination of the pathogen itself. IgG activates a cascade of immune protein production that results in pathogen elimination. IgG also binds and neutralizes toxins. IgG is also associated with hypersensitivity reactions.
Along with IgA secreted in the breast milk, colostrum contains a high percentage of IgG, especially bovine colostrum. In individuals with prior immunity to a pathogen, IgG appears about 24–48 hours after antigenic stimulation.
Therefore, in the first six months of life, the newborn has the same antibodies as the mother and the child can defend itself against all the pathogens that the mother encountered in her life until these antibodies are degraded. This repertoire of immunoglobulins is crucial for the newborns who are very sensitive to infections above all for the respiratory and digestive systems.
- Antibiotics like doxycycline greatly increase bacterial formation, and increase the chances of systemic microbial invasion
- Various cells from IBD patients show increased susceptibility to bacterial products, including flagellin, pili and lipopolysaccharide. Mucosa-associated adherent, invasive Escherichia coli (E. coli), which are pro-inflammatory and resistant to killing by mucosal macrophages, may be associated with the pathogenesis of CD (Crohn’s Disease). Increased gut permeability, bacterial translocation and increased lipopolysaccharide levels have been described in patients with immune-associated disorders. Intestinal barrier loss alone is insufficient to initiate disease.
- Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most prevalent organism associated with SIBO, after prevalence of low IgA (the most common association which is another immune deficiency).
Specific antibodies may be obtained from colostrum against enterotoxic bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella.
Bovine colostrum can be used for treating toxin-mediated intestinal conditions
It has been previously shown that bovine-derived colostrum preparations can be used in treating toxin-mediated intestinal conditions. Volunteers challenged orally with a concentrate of enterotoxigenic E. coli, administration of bovine colostrum prevented the development of diarrhea in all participants who received the product; by contrast the controls developed diarrhea In another study, the administration of milk-derived antibodies against the enterotoxigenic E. coli colonization factor protected 14/15 subjects from diarrhea, compared to 7/10 subjects given placebo.
Bovine Colostrum Can Be Used For Diarrheal And Other Gastro Viral Infections
Viruses are ubiquitous in nature
The healthy immune system is capable of destroying all viruses including HIV, EBV, HPV and HSV.
Viruses are known to cause inflammation in the gut including those that are responsible for gastroenteritis. Relevant viruses include the rotaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses, sapoviruses and astroviruses. Also relevant are the hepatitis viruses including types A, B, C, C, delta agent, E and G. During viral infection the foreign antigens presented by bacteria can generate strong inflammatory responses in the body leading to various pathologies of the gut and other tissues.
Macrophage activated IgG in bovine colostrum suppresses pathogenicity and prevents Herpes
Furthermore, IgG suppressed HSV-1 pathogenicity in the presence of macrophages. These results indicate immune milk has protective activity against HSV-1 by opsonic activity owing to its high concentration of HSV-1-reactive IgG, which is likely the BHV-1 antibody. Primary infection occurs via the oral cavity. However, the present results suggest that taking oral immune milk may be an effective measure to prevent primary HSV-1 infection in the oral cavity.
Colostrum has been proposed as a medicament for many various types of conditions including infectious disease, autoimmune disease, liver disease, and aberrant immune responses. It works by inducing oral tolerance, binding toxins so they can be released in the stool, and preventing translocation.
Colostrum is a unique product that arises from a distinct physiological and functional state of the mammary gland. In ruminants, the principal compositional difference between colostrum and mature milk is the very high content of bioactive components such as lactoferrin and immunoglobulins of which IgG class makes up 80-90%.
Don’t Forget Whole Fat Mammal Milk As Later Lactation Beneficial Food
Did you know?
Accumulating evidence underlines that milk is a complex signalling and epigenetic imprinting network that promotes stable FoxP3 expression and long-lasting Treg differentiation, crucial postnatal events preventing atopic and autoimmune diseases.
Clin Transl Allergy. 2016 May 12;6:18. doi: 10.1186/ s13601-016-0108-9. eCollection 2016
Galactose has been shown to be a very beneficial sugar that is actually an essential nutrient for the human body.
Milk sugar aka lactose has been shown to be very beneficial for the human body though unlike sucrose, lactose is made up of glucose and galactose. There is no fructose in lactose. It is a healthy disaccharide sugar.
Your Immune System Would Not Be Able To Function Without Galactose
- Your body wouldn’t know which cells are “good” and what cells are “bad.” Your body wouldn’t know who the invaders were and which ones should be attacked by antibodies.
*Galactosemia is a rare disorder however galactosemia patients should avoid galactose.
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Bovine serum albumin (IGG)(Immune Factor-Toxin Binder)
Travelan 70538 OTC Colostrum Dietary Supplement, 10-Day Pack, 30-Caplets
200 mg hyper immune colostrum
Hyperimmune colostrum is natural bovine colostrum collected from a population of cows immunized repeatedly with a specific pathogen. The colostrum is collected within 24 hours of the cow giving birth. Antibodies towards the specific pathogens or antigens that were used in the immunization are present in higher levels than in the population before treatment. Although some papers have been published stating that specific human pathogens were just as high as in hyperimmune colostrum and natural colostrum nearly always had higher antibody titers than did the hyperimmune version.
IGG is the toxin binder in colostrum. Hyperimmune colostrum has a higher IGG content.
Travelan is produced by Immuron® and is among the first bovine colostrum products to be patented and which will be sold as pharmaceutical drugs in the very near future to treat various disorders from liver problems, gut conditions and AIDS. Immuron® just went public and expects to generate 45 billion dollars profit by 2025 from bovine colostrum based pharmaceutical drugs. That is not necessarily a good thing (patenting a natural product), and may affect production, supply and price of natural unadulterated non hyperimmunized bovine colostrum for supplement use if they expect to be paid a royalty by claiming to ‘own’ bovine colostrum for discovery of benefits and natural reactions but have never invented an actual substance, hyperimmunized or otherwise. Similar claims have been made with the patenting of probiotics. Both claims should be challenged in court no matter how effective. Gcmaf and other maf producers who utilize bovine colostrum in their products have never violated patent law. Various and numerous antibodies are naturally found in bovine colostrum products which are often pooled.
Colostrum and Probiotic Capsules